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medicine raw material
Androgen Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Dehydroepiandrosterone Increasing endogenous production
Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone. It is one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans, in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain, where it functions as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the androgen and estrogen sex steroids. However, DHEA also has a variety of potential biological effects in its own right, binding to an array of nuclear and cell surface receptors, and acting as a neurosteroid and neurotrophin.
DHEA and other adrenal androgens such as androstenedione, although relatively weak androgens, are responsible for the androgenic effects of adrenarche, such as early pubic and axillary hair growth, adult - type body odor, increased oiliness of hair and skin, and mild acne. Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome ( CAIS ), who have a non-functional androgen receptor ( AR ) and are immune to the androgenic effects of DHEA and other androgens, have absent or only sparse/scanty pubic and axillary hair and body hair in general, demonstrating the role of DHEA, testosterone, and other androgens in body hair development at both adrenarche and pubarche.
As a neurosteroid and neurotrophin, DHEA has important effects in the central nervous system.
DHEA is transformed into DHEA - S by sulfation at the C3β position via the sulfotransferase enzymes SULT2A1 and to a lesser extent SULT1E1. This occurs naturally in the adrenal cortex and during first - pass metabolism in the liver and intestines when exogenous DHEA is administered orally. Levels of DHEA - S in circulation are approximately 250 to 300 times those of DHEA. DHEA-S in turn can be converted back into DHEA in peripheral tissues via steroid sulfatase ( STS ).
The terminal half-life of DHEA is short at only 15 to 30 minutes. In contrast, the terminal half-life of DHEA - S is far longer, at 7 to 10 hours. As DHEA - S can be converted back into DHEA, it serves as a circulating reservoir for DHEA, thereby extending the duration of DHEA.
Metabolites of DHEA include DHEA-S, 7α-hydroxy - DHEA, 7β - hydroxy - DHEA, 7- keto - DHEA, 7α - hydroxyepiandrosterone, and 7β - hydroxyepiandrosterone, as well as androstenediol and androstenedione.
|Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates )||Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )|
|4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD )||Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )|
|1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD )||Epiandrosterone|
|9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD )||Androstanolone|
|21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA )||Mestanolone|
|Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone )||17a-hydroxyprogesterone|
|11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone||19-nor-4-androstenedione|
|11 a - hydroxy Canrenone||Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )|
|3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one||Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )|
|Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )|
|Chemical Synthesis ( API )||Canrenone|
|Progesterone||Chemical Synthesis ( API )|
|Estradiol & esters||Testosterone & esters|
|Estriol||Nandrolone & esters|
|Altrenogest||Boldenone & esters|
|Trenbolone & esters|
|Metenolone & esters|