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Estriol Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Prevents Vaginal Atrophy and Urinary Tract Infections
In women who are not pregnant estriol is produced in only very small quantities, and circulating levels are in fact barely detectable. Unlike estradiol and estrone, estriol is not synthesized in or secreted from the ovaries, and is instead derived mainly if not exclusively from 16α - hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes ( e.g., CYP3A4 ) mainly in the liver. Estriol is cleared from the circulation rapidly in non - pregnant women, and so circulating levels are very low, but concentrations of estriol in the urine are relatively high.
Although circulating levels of estriol are very low outside of pregnancy, parous women have been found to have levels of estriol that are to some degree higher than those of nulliparous women.
Estriol is produced in quantities that are notable only during pregnancy. Levels of estriol increase 1,000-fold during pregnancy, whereas levels of estradiol and estrone increase 100-fold, and estriol accounts for 90% of the estrogens in the urine of pregnant women. At term, the daily production of estriol by the placenta is 35 to 45 mg, and levels in the maternal circulation are 8 to 13 ng/dL.
Use in screening
Estriol can be measured in maternal blood or urine and can be used as a marker of fetal health and well - being. If levels of unconjugated estriol ( uE3 or free estriol ) are abnormally low in a pregnant woman, this may indicate chromosomal or congenital anomalies like Down syndrome or Edward's syndrome. It is included as part of the triple test and quadruple test for antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.
Because many pathological conditions in a pregnant woman can cause deviations in estriol levels, these screenings are often seen as less definitive of fetal - placental health than a nonstress test. Conditions which can create false positives and false negatives in estriol testing for fetal distress include preeclampsia, anemia, and impaired kidney function.
|Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates )||Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )|
|4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD )||Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )|
|1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD )||Epiandrosterone|
|9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD )||Androstanolone|
|21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA )||Mestanolone|
|Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone )||17a-hydroxyprogesterone|
|11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone||19-nor-4-androstenedione|
|11 a - hydroxy Canrenone||Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )|
|3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one||Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )|
|Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )|
|Chemical Synthesis ( API )||Canrenone|
|Progesterone||Chemical Synthesis ( API )|
|Estradiol & esters||Testosterone & esters|
|Estriol||Nandrolone & esters|
|Altrenogest||Boldenone & esters|
|Trenbolone & esters|
|Metenolone & esters|