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|Name:||γ - Butyrolactone||CAS:||96-48-0|
|Purity:||≥99.8%||Appearance:||Colorless And Clear Liquid|
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gbl gamma butyrolactone,
4 hydroxybutanoic acid
Gamma Butyrolactone GBL Good electrical performance and stability CAS 96-48-0
GBL is a lactone. It is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma - hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma - hydroxybutyric acid. Under acidic conditions it forms an equilibrium mixture of both compounds. These compounds then may go on to form a polymer. When treated with a non - nucleophilic base, like lithium diisopropylamide, GBL can become an alpha - carbon nucleophile. The related compound caprolactone can be used to make a polyester in this manner.
GBL is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB. The hypnotic effect of GHB is enhanced by combination with alcohol. A 2003 rat study showed that GBL in combination with ethanol showed a potentiated hypnotic effect, as the sleep-timing measure was longer than both of the individual components combined
GBL is rapidly converted into GHB by paraoxonase ( lactonase ) enzymes, found in the blood. Animals which lack these enzymes exhibit no effect from GBL. GBL is more lipophilic ( fat soluble ) than GHB, and so is absorbed faster and has higher bioavailability. Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, GBL tends to be more potent and faster - acting than GHB, but has a shorter duration; whereas the related compound 1,4- butanediol ( 1,4- B ) tends to be slightly less potent, slower to take effect but longer - acting than GHB.
GBL is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol. This route proceeds via dehydration of GHB.
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran ( THF ), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.
Addictiveness and dependence
Frequent use of GHB / GBL, even when taken long-term and in moderate doses, does not appear to cause significant physical dependency in the majority of its users. In many people, quitting or temporarily abstaining from use of the drugs is achieved with minimal or no difficulty. However, when consumed in excessive amounts with a high frequency of dosing, physical and psychological dependence can develop. Management of GBL dependence involves considering the person's age, comorbidity and the pharmacological pathways of GBL.
There are some reports of GHB/GBL users adopting a '24/7' dosing regime. This is where the user has become tolerant to the effects of the drug, increasing the dosage and frequency of dosage simply to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
For those users who do report withdrawal symptoms upon quitting the use of GHB / GBL, symptoms seem to depend on the dosage and the length of time the drug was used. Light to moderate users often experience insomnia and sleep - related problems, whereas heavy, prolonged use can cause severe withdrawal symptoms similar to Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.
|Electronic||Technical grade||Common grade|
|Purity ( wt% ) ≥||99.9||99.8||99.5|
|Moisture ( wt% ) ≤||0.02||0.05||0.05|
|Color ( Hazen ) ≤||10||20||30|
1,4 - Butanediol ( wt% ) ≤
|Tetrahydrofuran ( wt% ) ≤||0.02||0.05||——|
|Acid value ( Butyrate,wt% ) ≤||0.03||0.05||——|
|Density ( D425 )||1.125～1.130|
|Refractive Index ( ND25 )||1.436～1.437|
|Cl mg/kg ≤||0.30||——||——|
|SO42 mg/kg ≤||1.00||——||——|
|NO3 mg/kg ≤||1.00||——||——|
|Fe mg/kg ≤||0.05||——||——|
|Cu mg/kg ≤||0.05||——||——|
|Zn mg/kg ≤||0.05||——||——|
|Pb mg/kg ≤||0.05||——||——|
|Na mg/kg ≤||0.50||——||——|
|K mg/kg ≤||0.50||——||——|