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anabolic androgenic steroids

Bodybuilder Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone For Cornea Healing 434-22-0

  • Bodybuilder Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone For Cornea Healing 434-22-0
Product Details:

Anabolic Steriod Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Nandrolone support cornea healing 434-22-0

 

 

Description

 

Nandrolone is an injected anabolic – androgenic steroid ( AAS ) which is used medically in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate. They are not active by mouth, and must be administered via intramuscular injection. When administered in this way, they form a depot from which they are slowly released, and hence have a long duration of action. Nandrolone esters are prodrugs, and are rapidly hydrolyzed into nandrolone once in the circulation.

 

 

 

Medical uses

 

Nandrolone esters are used clinically, although increasingly rarely, for people in catabolic states with major burns, cancer, and AIDS, and an ophthalmological formulation was available to support cornea healing.

 

 

Non-medical uses

 

Nandrolone esters are used for physique - or performance - enhancing purposes by competitive athletes, bodybuilders, and powerlifters.

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters

Professional Bodybuilders Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Boldenone Powder CAS 846-48-0

  • Professional Bodybuilders Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Boldenone Powder CAS 846-48-0
  • Professional Bodybuilders Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Boldenone Powder CAS 846-48-0
Product Details:

Boldenone Pharmaceutical Raw Materials for Professional Bodybuilders Build muscle 846-48-0

 

 

Description

 

Boldenone, also known as Δ1- testosterone, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid ( AAS ) and the 1(2)-dehydrogenated analogue of testosterone. Boldenone itself has never been marketed; as a pharmaceutical drug, it is used as boldenone undecylenate, the undecylenate ester.

 

 

 

Pharmacology

 

The activity of boldenone is mainly anabolic, with a low androgenic potency. Boldenone will increase nitrogen retention, protein synthesis, increases appetite and stimulates the release of erythropoietin in the kidneys. Boldenone was synthesized in an attempt to create a long - acting injectable methandrostenolone ( Dianabol ), for androgen deficiency disorders. Boldenone acts similar to methandrostenolone with fewer adverse androgenic effects. Although commonly compared to nandrolone, boldenone lacks progesterone receptor interaction and all the associated progestogenic side effects.

 

 

Chemistry

 

See also: List of androgens/anabolic steroids

Boldenone, also known as Δ1- testosterone, 1- dehydrotestosterone, or androsta -1,4- dien -17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic androstane steroid and a derivative of testosterone. It is specifically testosterone with a double bond between the C1 and C2 positions.

 

 

Use

 

Boldenone base has a very high level of male hormone and acts actively in synthesis. Boldenone is effective and stable in promoting the muscle and strength growth. If it is taken with other drugs, its pharmaceutical effect would be better. Boldnlone enjoys great popularity as a steroid which can keep the muscle after the cycle ( Trenbolone, stanozolol, testosterone, pure HGH have the same effects ).

Besides, human body has a little boldenone under the natural situation. Boldenone was synthesized in an attempt to create a long - acting injectable methandrostenolone ( Dianabol ), but as a matter of fact boldenone does not have the characteristics of methandrostenolone at all. It has a very long life and can show up on a steroid test for up to 1.5 years, due to the long undecylenate ester attached to the parent steroid. The ttrace of amounts of the drug can easily be detected for months after discontinued use.
Dosage instruction : Boldenone Acetate take in doses of 300-800mg’s a week

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters

 

Veterinary Powder Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Altrenogest Animal Pill CAS 850-52-2

  • Veterinary Powder Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Altrenogest Animal Pill CAS 850-52-2
Product Details:

For Veterinary Medicine Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Altrenogest Animal pill 850-52-2

 

 

Description

 

Altrenogest ( or allyltrenbolone ) is a synthetic trienic C21 steroidal progestomimetic, belonging to the 19-nor - testosterone series. It is an orally active ( pro ) gestagen. Like all steroids, altrenogest acts by its liposolubility by penetrating the target cells where it binds to specific receptors.

 

Progestins are primarily produced endogenously by the corpus luteum. They transform proliferative endometrium to secretory endometrium, enhance myometrium hypertrophy and inhibit spontaneous uterine contraction. Progestins have a dose - dependent inhibitory effect on the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins and also have some degree of estrogenic, anabolic and androgenic activity.

 

 

 

Pharmacology

 

1. In vitro research

 

An in vitro yeast structure - activity relationships bioassay study found that altrenogest was the most potent agonist of both the progesterone receptor ( PR ) and the androgen receptor ( AR ) of a large selection of other progestogens as well as anabolic - androgenic steroids ( AAS ). The observed potency of altrenogest even exceeded that of metribolone ( methyltrienolone, R -1881 ), which was the second most potent compound. In the study, it showed an EC50 of 0.64 nM for the AR and 688% of the relative activational potency of testosterone and an EC50 of 0.3 nM and 1,300% of the relative activational potency of progesterone, with an AR/PR activational potency ratio of 0.53.

Although very potent in both activities in vitro, the AR / PR activational potency ratio of altrenogest was in the same range as that of other 19- nortestosterone progestins such as norethisterone, noretynodrel, norgestrel, and allylestrenol ( ratio for all < 1.0 ), whereas the AR/PR activational potency ratio of its 17α - deallylated AAS analogue trenbolone was, at 64, profoundly increased ( although the ratio of metribolone ( the 17α - methylated variant of altrenogest ), at 0.56, was almost the same as that of altrenogest ).

 

2. In vivo research

 

According to its manufacturer Roussel Uclaf, altrenogest has weak anabolic and androgenic activity equivalent to 1 / 20th of that of testosterone. However, no significant androgenic effects have been observed in young stallions or mature mares, and altrenogest has notably been used to maintain pregnancy in mares ( similarly to the use of allylestrenol to maintain pregnancy in women ) with no incidence of virilization or other abnormalities in filly offspring. On the other hand, minor potential anabolic / androgenic effects have been suggested for altrenogest in pigs.

 

 

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters

CAS 846-48-0 Anabolic Androgenic Steroids , Boldenone Powder C19H26O2 ISO 9001 Approved

  • CAS 846-48-0 Anabolic Androgenic Steroids , Boldenone Powder C19H26O2 ISO 9001 Approved
Product Details:

Anabolic steroid Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Boldenone for excitant Bodybuilders C19H26O2

 

 

Description

 

Boldenone was synthesized in an attempt to create a long-acting injectable methandrostenolone ( Dianabol ), but in reality boldenone acts nothing like methandrostenolone. It has a very long half - life, and can show up on a steroid test for up to 1.5 years, due to the long undecylenate ester attached to the parent steroid. Trace amounts of the drug can easily be detected for months after discontinued use.

 

 

 

Use

 

1 . Boldenone is the most popular steroid for veterinary use. It has a very high level of male hormone and acts actively in synthesis. Boldenone is effective and stable in promoting the muscle and strength growth.
If it is taken with other drugs, its pharmaceutical effect would be better. Boldnlone enjoys great popularity as a steroid which can keep the muscle after the cycle ( Trenbolone, stanozolol, testosterone, pure HGH have the same effects. Besides, human body has a little boldenone under the natural situation.

 

2 . Boldenone was synthesized in an attempt to create a long-acting injectable methandrostenolone ( Dianabol ), but as a matter of fact boldenone does not have the characteristics of methandrostenolone at all. It has a very long life and can show up on a steroid test for up to 1.5 years, due to the long undecylenate ester attached to the parent steroid. Trace amounts of the drug can easily be detected for months after discontinued use. Although commonly compared to nandrolone, boldenone lacks progesterone receptor interaction and all the associated progestogenic side effects..

 

 

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters

C24H32O4S Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Hormones Aldactone Spironolactone

  • C24H32O4S Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Hormones Aldactone Spironolactone
Product Details:

Hormones Aldactone Spironolactone Pharmaceutical Raw Materials For Male Sexual Dysfunction Treatment

 

 

Description

 

Spironolactone is a potent and direct antagonist of the AR, blocking androgens like testosterone from binding to and activating the receptor. The AR antagonism of spironolactone mostly underlies its antiandrogen activity and is responsible for its therapeutic benefits in the treatment of androgen - dependent conditions like acne, hirsutism, and pattern hair loss and its usefulness in hormone therapy for transgender women. In addition, the AR antagonism of spironolactone is involved in its feminizing side effects like gynecomastia in men.

 

Spironolactone, similarly to other steroidal antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, is actually not a pure, or silent, antagonist of the AR, but rather is a weak partial agonist with the capacity for both antagonistic and agonistic effects. However, in the presence of sufficiently high levels of potent full agonists like testosterone and DHT ( the cases in which spironolactone is usually used even with regards to the " lower " relative levels present in females ), spironolactone will behave more similarly to a pure antagonist.

 

 

Applications

 

Androgens like testosterone and DHT play a critical role in the pathogenesis of a number of dermatological conditions including acne, seborrhea, hirsutism ( excessive facial/body hair growth in women ), and pattern hair loss ( androgenic alopecia ).

 

In demonstration of this, women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome ( CAIS ) do not produce sebum or develop acne and have little to no body, pubic, or axillary hair. Moreover, men with congenital 5α-reductase type II deficiency 5α-reductase being an enzyme that greatly potentiates the androgenic effects of testosterone in the skin, have little to no acne, scanty facial hair, reduced body hair, and reportedly no incidence of male pattern hair loss.

 

Conversely, hyperandrogenism in women, for instance due to polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS ) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia ( CAH ), is commonly associated with acne and hirsutism as well as virilization ( masculinization ) in general. In accordance with the preceding, antiandrogens are highly effective in the treatment of the aforementioned androgen-dependent skin and hair conditions

 

By acting as an antiandrogen, as androgens can suppress both estrogen production and signaling ( e.g., in the breasts ).

 

Inhibition of the conversion of estradiol to estrone, resulting in an increase in the ratio of circulating estradiol to estrone. Estradiol is far more potent than estrone as an estrogen, which is comparatively almost inactive.

 

Enhancement of the rate of peripheral conversion of testosterone into estradiol, thus decreasing the ratio of circulating testosterone to estradiol.

 

Specification

 

Test Items Specification Test Results
Description White or off - white crystalline powder Off - white crystalline powder
Specific rotation -56°~-60° -58.2°
Identification IR Matches with working standard Complies
HPLC
Solubility Freely soluble in chloroform and in alcohol; Very slightly soluble in water Conform
Heavy metals ≤10ppm <10ppm
Water ≤0.3% 0.22%
Residue on ignition ≤0.1% 0.05%
Relative material Maximum impurities ≤0.5% 0.36%
Total impurities ≤1.0% 0.52%
Assay 98.5~101.0% 99.68%
Conclusion The specification conform with USP.

 

Local Anesthesia Benzocaine Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Ethyl 4 Aminobenzoate

  • Local Anesthesia Benzocaine Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Ethyl 4 Aminobenzoate
Product Details:

Local anesthesia Benzocaine Pharmaceutical Raw Materials as fat - soluble surface anesthetic treat Otic Pain

 

 

Description

 

Benzazocaine can be used as a precursor of osoxine, osoka and procaine. At the same time, it is used as a local anesthetic in medicine, there is pain, itching, is mainly used for wounds, ulcers, mucosal surface and hemorrhoids narcotic pain and itch, the ointment also can be used as a nasopharyngeal catheter, tu speculum in lubrication acesodyne, etc. Temporarily relieve pain and itching skin, mild burns, sunburn, trauma and insect bites.

 

Ear agents are used to relieve acute congestive, concentrated external otitis, pain and itching of ear infections, and external use of the ear. It is also effective for toothache, sore throat, mouth ulcer, various hemorrhoids, anal fissure and vulva itching, as a male genital desensitization agent to slow ejaculation.

 

Or used as an anesthetic lubricant for catheters and endoscopic tubes.

 

 

Use

 

Benzocaine is indicated to treat a variety of pain - related conditions.
Benzocaine may be used for:
1. Local anesthesia of oral and pharyngeal mucous membranes ( sore throat, cold sores, canker sores, toothache, sore gums, denture irritation )
2. Otic Pain ( earache )
3. Surgical or procedural local anesthesia.

Specification

 

Items Tested Specification Result
Characters A white, crystalline powder or colorless crystals. A white crystal.
Identification IR should comply with the Reference Standard spectrum.
UV should comply with the Reference Standard spectrum.
An orange-red precipitate is performed.
IR complies with the Reference standard spectrum.
UV complies with the Reference standard spectrum.
An orange - red precipitate is performed.
Melting range 88 ~ 92 degree 89.8-90.2 degree
Loss on Drying Not more than 1.0% 0.22%
Readily carbonizable Substances The resolution has no more color than Matching Fluid A. Conform
Residue on ignition Not more than 0.1% 0.02%
Heavy metals Not more than 0.001% Conform
Chloride Conform Conform
Assay ( HPLC ) 98.0%-102.0% 99.96%
Ordinary Impurities ≤1% Conform
Reaction Conform Conform

 

CAS 94-09-7 Benzocaine Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Topical Pain Reliever

  • CAS 94-09-7 Benzocaine Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Topical Pain Reliever
Product Details:

Benzocaine Pharmaceutical Raw Materials to treat a variety of pain-related conditions as a topical pain reliever

 

 

Description

 

Alias benzocaine ( ABEE ). Colorless square crystals, odorless and tasteless. Molecular weight 165.19. Melting point is 91 ~ 92 ℃. Soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. Soluble in almond oil, olive oil, dilute acid. It's hard to dissolve in water. Clinically used for wound surface, ulcer surface, burn, skin cleft and hemorrhoid analgesic, relieving itching.

 

Benzene azole paid is a fat - soluble surface anesthetic, and several other local anesthetics such as lidocaine, dicaine, compared to the role of small intensity, therefore when applied to mucous membrane will not make the person feels unwell by anesthetic effect. It is a kind of fat - soluble drug, which is easy to bind to the mucous membrane or the lipid layer of the skin, but not easy to penetrate into the human body to produce toxicity.

 

 

Use

 

Benzocaine is indicated to treat a variety of pain - related conditions.
Benzocaine may be used for:
1. Local anesthesia of oral and pharyngeal mucous membranes ( sore throat, cold sores, canker sores, toothache, sore gums, denture irritation )
2. Otic Pain ( earache )
3. Surgical or procedural local anesthesia.

Benzocaine is used as a key ingredient in numerous pharmaceuticals:

  • Some glycerol - based ear medications for use in removing excess wax as well as relieving ear conditions such as otitis media and swimmers ear.
  • Some previous diet products such as Ayds.
  • Some condoms designed to prevent premature ejaculation. Benzocaine largely inhibits sensitivity on the penis, and can allow for an erection to be maintained longer ( in a continuous act ) by delaying ejaculation. Conversely, an erection will also fade faster if stimulus is interrupted.
  • Benzocaine mucoadhesive patches have been used in reducing orthodontic pain.
  • In Poland it is included, together with menthol and zinc oxide, in the liquid powder ( not to be confused with the liquid face powder ) used mainly after mosquito stings. Today's ready made Pudroderm was once used there as pharmaceutical compound.
  • Benzocaine is commonly found, particularly in Britain, as an impurity in street cocaine and also as a bulking agent in " legal highs ". Whilst giving a numbing effect similar to cocaine on users' gums it does not actually produce the effects of cocaine.
  • Benzocaine was used in synthesis of Leteprinim.

Specification

 

Items Tested Specification Result
Characters A white, crystalline powder or colorless crystals. A white crystal.
Identification IR should comply with the Reference Standard spectrum.
UV should comply with the Reference Standard spectrum.
An orange-red precipitate is performed.
IR complies with the Reference standard spectrum.
UV complies with the Reference standard spectrum.
An orange-red precipitate is performed.
Melting range 88 ~ 92 degree 89.8-90.2 degree
Loss on Drying Not more than 1.0% 0.22%
Readily carbonizable Substances The resolution has no more color than Matching Fluid A. Conform
Residue on ignition Not more than 0.1% 0.02%
Heavy metals Not more than 0.001% Conform
Chloride Conform Conform
Assay ( HPLC ) 98.0%-102.0% 99.96%
Ordinary Impurities ≤1% Conform
Reaction Conform Conform

Estrogen Metabolism Estriol Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Menopausal Symptoms

  • Estrogen Metabolism Estriol Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Menopausal Symptoms
  • Estrogen Metabolism Estriol Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Menopausal Symptoms
Product Details:

Estrogenic Metabolite Estriol Pharmaceutical Raw Materials for menopausal symptoms GPER antagonist

 

Description

 

Estriol ( E3 ), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone. It is one of three major endogenous estrogens, the others being estradiol and estrone. Levels of estriol in women who are not pregnant are almost undetectable. However, during pregnancy, estriol is synthesized in very high quantities by the placenta and is the most produced estrogen in the body by far, although circulating levels of estriol are similar to those of other estrogens due to a relatively high rate of metabolism and excretion. Relative to estradiol, both estriol and estrone have far weaker activity as estrogens. Although it is less commonly used than other estrogens, estriol is available for medical use throughout the world in a variety of formulations, including for oral and vaginal administration.

 

 

Medical use

 

Estriol is marketed widely in Europe and elsewhere throughout the world under the brand names Ovestin, Ortho - Gynest, and a variety of others. It is available in oral tablet, vaginal cream, and vaginal suppository form, and is used in hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Estriol is also available in some countries as estriol succinate ( brand name Synapause ), a dosage - equivalent ester prodrug of estriol.

 

 

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters

Pregnancy Hormones Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Breasts Health / Endometrial Cancer

  • Pregnancy Hormones Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Breasts Health / Endometrial Cancer
  • Pregnancy Hormones Anabolic Androgenic Steroids For Breasts Health / Endometrial Cancer
Product Details:

Hormone of pregnancy Pharmaceutical Raw Materials for Breasts Health prevent endometrial cancer

 

 

Biosynthesis

 

Steroidogenesis, showing progesterone among the progestogens in yellow area.

 

In mammals, progesterone, like all other steroid hormones, is synthesized from pregnenolone, which itself is derived from cholesterol.

 

Cholesterol undergoes double oxidation to produce 22R - hydroxycholesterol and then 20α, 22R - dihydroxycholesterol. This vicinal diol is then further oxidized with loss of the side chain starting at position C22 to produce pregnenolone. This reaction is catalyzed by cytochrome P450scc.

 

The conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone takes place in two steps. First, the 3β - hydroxyl group is oxidized to a keto group and second, the double bond is moved to C4, from C5 through a keto/enol tautomerization reaction. This reaction is catalyzed by 3β - hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ5-4 - isomerase.

 

Progesterone in turn is the precursor of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, and after conversion to 17α - hydroxyprogesterone, of cortisol and androstenedione. Androstenedione can be converted to testosterone, estrone, and estradiol.

 

Pregnenolone and progesterone can also be synthesized by yeast.

 

The main physiological effects

  • Progesterone also has a role in skin elasticity and bone strength, in respiration, in nerve tissue and in female sexuality, and the presence of progesterone receptors in certain muscle and fat tissue may hint at a role in sexually dimorphic proportions of those.
  • During pregnancy, progesterone is said to decrease irritability.
  • During pregnancy, progesterone helps to suppress immune responses of the mother to fetal antigens, which prevents rejection of the fetus.
  • Progesterone raises epidermal growth factor-1 (EGF-1) levels, a factor often used to induce proliferation, and used to sustain cultures, of stem cells.
  • Progesterone increases core temperature (thermogenic function) during ovulation.
  • Progesterone reduces spasm and relaxes smooth muscle. Bronchi are widened and mucus regulated. (PRs are widely present in submucosal tissue.)
  • Progesterone acts as an antiinflammatory agent and regulates the immune response.
  • Progesterone reduces gall-bladder activity.
  • Progesterone normalizes blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy.
  • Progesterone may affect gum health, increasing risk of gingivitis (gum inflammation).
  • Progesterone appears to prevent endometrial cancer (involving the uterine lining) by regulating the effects of estrogen.
  • Progesterone plays an important role in the signaling of insulin release and pancreatic function, and may affect the susceptibility to diabetes or gestational diabetes.
  • Progesterone may play a role in male behavior, such as in male aggression towards infants

 

Product Catalogs

 

Fermentation ( Starting Materials & Intermediates ) Chemical Synthesis ( Intermediates )
4-androstenedione ( 4 - AD ) Dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA )
1,4-androstadienedione ( ADD ) Epiandrosterone
9a - hydroxy - 4 - androstenedione ( 9- OH -4- AD ) Androstanolone
21 - hydroxy - 20 - methylpregn - 4 - ene - 3 - one ( Bisnoralcohol, BA ) Mestanolone
Sitolactone ( δ- Lactone ) 17a-hydroxyprogesterone
11 a, 17 a - dihydroxyprogesterone 19-nor-4-androstenedione
11 a - hydroxy Canrenone Methyldienedione ( Estra -4,9- diene -3,17-dione )
3b,7a,15a - trihydroxyandrost - 5 - ene - 17- one Tertraene Acetate ( 3TR )
  Tertraene 21 - Methyl ( 5ST )
Chemical Synthesis ( API ) Canrenone
Spironolactone Estrone
Stanozolol  
Progesterone Chemical Synthesis ( API )
Estradiol & esters Testosterone & esters
Estriol Nandrolone & esters
Altrenogest Boldenone & esters
  Trenbolone & esters
  Metenolone & esters
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